Chapter 19: Functions of the Blood Vessels Flashcards
Vessels are exchanged. The blood vessels with the greatest number of vessels. The force that the blood exerts against the walls of the blood vessels is known as capillary resistance. Determined by the product of cardiac output and SVR. Determined by the product of SV x HR x SVR. (helps to move blood through the body.) An incorrect reading Equals shock, an incorrect reading = rupture Edema is caused by a lack of this plasma protein in the body. The oncotic pressure of the plasma, which is a component of the osmotic pressure of the blood induced by plasma proteins, is determined.
Capillary Filtration is a type of filtration.
Vessels of resistance.
It’s cool: pallor, discomfort, paresthesia, and paralysis are all signs of it.
- a device that is used to test one’s blood pressure Differing amounts of blood in the blood vessels at different points in time.
- The artery that is most usually utilized for blood pressure measurement.
- Rhythmic vibrations of the blood vessel walls that indicate the pace of the heartbeat At the peak of ventricular contraction, the pressure in the arteries is the highest.
- Myocardial contraction is represented by a pressure waveform.
- It is common for dizziness and fainting to occur when someone changes from a laying to a standing posture because of a quick drop in blood pressure.
During ventricular relaxation, the pressure in the arteries decreases.
When blood pressure is measured, a noise may be heard through the stethoscope.
The nerve that delivers responses to the arterioles is known as the vagus nerve.
Nerve fibers that convey vagal signals to the heart are colored in different ways.
The color of the nerve fibers that provide sensory information to the central nervous system.
The sympathetic nervous system is the source of the fibers that carry reactions to the heart and arterioles.
The Aortic Arch and the Carotid Sinus The receptors for blood pressure are located in this area.
This is the same as vagal discharge.
Heart block is the most common complication.
Inotropic impact that is positive(+).
The contraction of the myocardium has become stronger.
Systemic vascular resistance has been increased.
TACHYCARDIA is the condition that is most likely to occur.
Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system.
The effects of epinephrine and angiotensin II are investigated.
Constriction of the arteries.
The administration of a beta1-adrenergic agonist is described below.
There is a vagal discharge. Cardiac output has been reduced. Alpha1 receptor antagonists are used to treat this condition. Following the loss of plasma proteins as a result of renal illness, which of the following pressure changes occurs as a result of this loss?
Chapter 19:Functions of the Blood Vessels exam Flashcards
Anatomical regions of the carotid sinus and aortic arch that react to variations in blood pressure What is the “peak” pressure of 120/80 mm Hg referred to as? 120/80 mm Hg: 120/80 mm Hg What is the “bottom number” in this case? “Shocky” blood pressure (70/40 mm Hg) has been described as follows: Patients with high blood pressure are more prone to suffer a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (stroke) The difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures is represented by this value. the heart rate as measured at the wrist the device that is used to take a blood pressure reading silent?
- In the venae cavae, the blood pressure was found to be normal.
- blood pressure that is “shocking” Capillary blood pressure recording is done in the capillaries.
- Since the arterioles have the ability to contract and relax, they can perform the role of resistance vessels.
- peripheral resistance has been reduced Inflammatory responses to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are caused by the activation of which of the following pathways?
- Regarding the baroreceptor reflex, specify the event that happens most recently in the sequence The capillary filtration pressure lowers, resulting in the absorption of tissue fluid.
-albumin is filtered and deposited in the interstitial space of the tissue-edema develops Because of the loss of plasma protein, such as albumin, the oncotic pressure in the blood decreases.
As you might anticipate, the medulla oblongata interprets the signal as indicating elevated blood pressure and fires the vagus nerve as a result.
The blood pressure in the arteries is higher than the blood pressure in the veins.
Generally speaking, hypotension is present.
The function of the nozzle of a garden hose is the most similar to the function of theEpinephrine (adrenalin) and angiotensin II are the hormones that regulate blood pressure.
are found in the carotid sinus and aortic arch, and they detect blood flow.
What sort of information is transported to the CNS through the CN IX and CN X fiber optic cables?
A quick increase in blood pressure is the result of An increase in systemic vascular resistance is the most likely cause of heart failure.
In this case, the patient’s heart rate is 120 beats per minute, his blood pressure is 90/60 mm Hg, and his ejection fraction is 40 percent.
Exactly what is the consequence of a protein increase in the interstitial (tissue) area is still a mystery.
A patient has hemorrhaged one liter of blood and is diaphoretic (sweating profusely), oliguric (having reduced urine output), and tachycardic (having rapid heartbeat).
The baroreceptor reflex has “kicked in” as a result of the blood loss, resulting in a sympathetic outpouring of energy.
He has the least chance of succeeding.
Which of the following statements about angiotensin II is false?
Vascular resistance is mostly influenced by the presence of When the carotid sinus syncope is induced by a sudden increase in blood pressure over the carotid sinus, the vasculature becomes less resistant to blood flow (tight collar).
A drop in blood pressure boosts the production of testosterone.
Vasodilation is caused by the administration of an alpha1 adrenergic blocker (antagonist). -helps to decrease blood pressure-helps to lower vascular resistance When a person exercises vigorously, he or she becomes flushed. In order to remove heat by radiation, the flushing is performed.
Numbers Chapter 19
“This is the ordinance of the law that theLordhas commanded, saying: ‘Speak to the children of Israel, that they bring you a red heifer without blemish, in which there is no defect, and on which a yoke has never been placed.'” Then theLordspoke to Moses and Aaron, saying, “Thisisthe ordinance of the law that theLordhas commanded, saying: ‘Speak to the children of Israel, It is requested that you be provided with a red heifer.
A red heifer is a cow that has never been pregnant and hence is unable to provide milk.
“In most cases, the color of the animal did not matter.” As a blood-like color, this one needed to be red.” (Wenham) When there is no fault and no yoke has ever been placed on it, it is said to be “blemishless.” Because of these conditions, this specific species has become even more uncommon.
2. (3-10) The sacrifice, burning, and gathering of ashes from the red heifer.
Your responsibility is to hand it over to Eleazar the priest so that he may transport it outside the camp, where it will be slain in front of him. Eleazar the priest is then responsible for sprinkling part of its blood seven times immediately in front of the tabernacle of meeting. The heifer will then be sacrificed in his presence, and everything about it will be burned: its hide, its meat, its blood, and its offal. As well as cedar wood, hyssop, and scarlet, the priest will toss them into the center of the fire that is burning the heifer to sacrifice.
- And whomever burns it will have to wash his clothing in water and take a bath in water, and he will be filthy until the sunset.
- Furthermore, the person who collects the ashes of the heifer must wash his garments and remain unclean until the evening.
- a.After then, the heifer will be sacrificed in his presence, and its hide, meat, blood, and offal will all be burnt together: The red heifer would be sacrificed in the traditional manner, with a little amount of blood being poured on the altar before it was killed.
- As opposed to every other sacrifice in the Bible, the blood of the red heifer is burnt together with the offering, rather than being totally drained from its jugular vein as is done with all other sacrifices.
- If there is a fire burning the heifer, the priest will take cedar wood, hyssop, and scarlet, and throw them into it.
- When a leper is cleansed, each of these three objects is mentioned in Leviticus 14:4-6, and each is utilized in the process.
- These characteristics – as well as a symbolic allusion to the wood of the cross – may be the rationale for placing it in this section.
- It was used in the cleaning process for lepers, but it was also used to offer Jesus water from a hyssop branch on the cross (John 19:29), and when David exclaimed, “Purge me with hyssop,” he was acknowledging that he was just as terrible as a leper, according to Psalm 51:7.
- The color scarlet, which represents blood, represents the purifying blood of Jesus shed on the cross.
This water of purification is to be stored for the assembly of the children of Israel; it is to be used for the purpose of cleansing them from sin: In order to prepare water for purification, a large amount of ash would be produced by burning the corpse and its components (the cedar, the hyssop, and the scarlet cloth).
The ash would be collected and sprinkled into the water in small amounts to make it suitable for purification.
B. Other laws of purification.
Anyone who comes into contact with a deceased person will be unclean for seven days. He must purify himself with water on the third day and again on the seventh day before he can be considered cleansed. His cleanness will be lost, though, if he does not cleanse himself on the third day and on the seventh day of the week. Anyone who comes into contact with the body of someone who has died without first purifying himself defiles the Lord’s tabernacle. That individual will be expelled from the land of Israel.
a.Anyone who comes into contact with a deceased person will be filthy for seven days: To be ceremonially unclean did not imply that one had committed a “sin,” in the traditional sense; rather, it indicated that one was prohibited from their usual communion with and worship of God, as well as their association with God’s people, until such time as they were cleansed.
John 13:5-11 provides a good contrast; if we are “bathed” by Jesus, we only need to have our feet cleansed when they grow filthy during the natural course of our lives.
In addition to receiving the magnificent, once-and-for-all cleaning that Jesus provides when we are born again, we must come to Him on a regular basis in order to be cleaned of the things that occur in our daily lives.
Under the New Covenant, the Christian also has a specific responsibility to maintain purity because we have the potential to corrupt God’s dwelling place (1 Corinthians 6:19-20).
2. (14-16) How to handle a dead body.
When a man dies in a tent, the following is the law: Everyone who enters the tent and everyone who is within the tent are filthy for seven days; and any open vessel that does not have a cover affixed to it is unclean. Anyone who comes into contact with a person who has been slaughtered by a sword or who has died, or with a human bone or a grave, will be filthy for seven days. When a guy dies in a tent, the following is the law: The practice of quarantining everyone who has come into touch with a dead corpse was also a fantastic public health safeguard at the time.
- b.Every open vessel that does not have a cover connected to it is considered unclean: In reality, this idea applied to any open vessel that had the capacity to host disease-causing organisms, regardless of its size.
- c.It is forbidden to be unclean: What was it about a dead body that was fundamentally unclean?
- Death is similar to sin manifested in the world.
- If a person came into contact with the carcass of a deceased animal, he was considered unclean for less than one day (Leviticus 11:24, 27, 39).
- Man is, without a doubt, superior to animals – and especially superior in sin.
In Romans 7:24, Paul expresses his despair at having been defeated by sin: “Who will free me from this body of death?” he shouts. Our release from the body of death is contingent on our acceptance and participation in the glorious work of Jesus on our behalf.
3. (17-19) The purpose for the ashes of the red heifer.
And for an unclean person, they shall take some of the ashes of the heifer that was sacrificed for sin purification, and they shall put them in a vessel with flowing water to wash them away. A clean person should take hyssop and soak it in water, then sprinkle it on the tent, on all of the vessels, on the people who were there, or on anybody who has touched a bone, the slain, the dead, or a graveyard. He must cleanse himself by washing his clothing and taking a bath in water. Then he will be considered clean at the end of the third day and at the end of the seventh day, when the unclean are sprinkled again.
Furthermore, in the evening, he shall be clean: The combination of the ashes of the red heifer (whose constituents all speak of Jesus’ labor on our behalf), water (which speaks of the work of God’s Word and His Holy Spirit) results in a purification that is both effective and effective at the same time.
For if the blood of bulls and goats, as well as the ashes of a heifer, sprinkled on the unclean (Hebrews 9:13-14)
4. (20-22) The nature of uncleanness.
Those who are filthy and refuse to purify themselves will be expelled from the assembly, since they have contaminated the Lord’s temple with their filthiness. Since no water of cleansing has been sprinkled on him, he is considered unclean. It will remain in effect in perpetuity for them. It is necessary for him who sprinkles the water of purification to wash his garments, and it is necessary for him who touches the water of purification to remain unclean until sunset. Whatever the uncleanperson touches will become filthy, and the person who touches it will remain unclean until the evening hour.
It will take time for the dirty guy to become clean.
His own ideas or strategies for purification are completely ineffective.
The one who treats the water of cleaning as if it were an ordinary item (the one who comes into contact with the water of purification) will be viewed as dirty himself.
c.Anything that the unclean individual comes into contact with becomes unclean: It was easy to spread uncleanliness, but it was more difficult to find and maintain cleanliness. Bible Commentary by David Guzik, published in the year 2021 by TheEnduring Word ([email protected]).
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
SkinBurns In the case of carbon monoxide poisoning, gangrene, difficult wounds, and infections in which tissues are starved of oxygen, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (also known as HBOT) is used to speed up healing. If you want to undertake this treatment, you will be taken into a special chamber where you will breathe pure oxygen at air pressure levels that are 1.5 to 3 times greater than the usual. The objective is to provide enough oxygen to the circulation to allow for tissue healing and the restoration of normal physiological function.
Facts about hyperbaric oxygen therapy
The use of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in the United States dates back to the early twentieth century. This was the case when Orville Cunningham utilized pure oxygen to effectively heal a person who was dying from the influenza virus in 1918. A hyperbaric chamber was built for him, but he removed it when his attempts to use the therapy for other diseases were unsuccessful. In the 1940s, the United States Navy employed hyperbaric oxygen to treat deep-sea divers who were suffering from decompression sickness.
By the 1960s, the technique was being utilized to treat carbon monoxide poisoning as well as other illnesses.
Also permitted for use are more than a dozen illnesses that range from burns to bone disorders, such as the following:
- Carbon monoxide poisoning
- Cyanide poisoning
- Crush injuries
- Gas gangrene (a type of gangrene in which gas gathers in tissues)
- And cyanide poisoning are all possible outcomes. Decompression sickness is a medical condition that occurs when a person is exposed to high levels of pressure during a dive. Inadequate blood flow in the arteries as a result of an acute or traumatic event
- Skin grafts and flaps that have been compromised
- Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone that occurs after radiation therapy. NECROTIC SOFT TISSUE INFECTION (also known as necrotizing soft tissue infection)
- Emboli are air or gas bubbles that become lodged in a blood artery (air or gas emboli). Active actinomycosis is a chronic infection that causes diabetic wounds to fail to heal adequately.
Many insurance companies and government programs, including Medicare, Medicaid, and the Veterans Administration, often fund hyperbaric oxygen therapy for these illnesses, albeit not always. Before receiving therapy, verify that your insurance plan covers it.
How does HBOT work?
- HBO treatment for certain illnesses is commonly covered by Medicare, Medicaid, and many insurance companies
- However, it is not covered in every situation. Before undergoing therapy, confirm that your insurance plan covers it.
Types of hyperbaric oxygen chambers
There are two types of chambers used in hyperbaric oxygen therapy:
- Chamber has a single location. This is a chamber designed to accommodate a single individual. This device is in the shape of a long, plastic tube that looks similar to an MRI scanner. The patient enters the chamber through a small opening. It is steadily pressured with 100 percent oxygen
- It is a multi-place chamber with many chambers. This chamber, or room, has enough space to accommodate two or more persons at the same time. The course of therapy is much the same as before. The distinction is that people inhale pure oxygen through masks or hoods instead of regular air.
What happens during HBOT
Hyperbaric oxygen treatment should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional. Hyperbaric oxygen chambers are available in a number of hospitals. People may rest, sit, or sleep comfortably in these chambers for up to 2 hours at a time, taking deep breaths throughout. When the pressure is increased, such as when traveling by plane or hiking in the mountains, your ears may become blocked. The act of swallowing or chewing gum will “pop” the ears back to their normal levels of hearing. Your blood transports the additional oxygen throughout your body, injecting it into the wounded tissues that are in desperate need of more oxygen so that they may start to mend.
Claustrophobia, tiredness, and headaches are among the mild adverse effects of this medication.
Hyperbaric oxygen treatment is not suitable for everyone, as previously stated. People who have recently undergone ear surgery or ear trauma, as well as those who have a cold or fever, or who have certain forms of lung illness, should avoid using it. Trauma to the middle ear is the most prevalent consequence following high-pressure oxygen therapy. Eye damage and sinus difficulties are two more potential consequences to watch out for. Oxygen poisoning is a serious condition that can occur in uncommon and severe circumstances.
This can result in seizures, fluid buildup in the lungs, lung failure, and other complications. A thorough conversation with your healthcare physician is required before making the choice to utilize hyperbaric oxygen treatment, in order to weigh the potential risks and advantages.
Ch.19 bio235 – Notes – 19: functions and properties of blood: Blood is a liquid connective that
a description of the activities and characteristics of blood (19.1) Blood is a viscous connective tissue composed of cells surrounded by a viscous extracellular matrix (VECM) (plasma) The following are the functions of blood: 1.Transportation: O2 is transported from the lungs to the cells by the blood, and CO2 is transported from the cells to the lungs for exhalation by the blood. Nutrients are transported, while trash is transported for elimination. PH regulation, achieved via the use of buffers, assists in maintaining homeostasis.
(3) Protection: Blood may clot, which helps to prevent blood loss following an injury.
Blood has the following physical characteristics: thick, the temperature is 38 degrees, the pH is 7.35-7.45, and the blood volume is 5-6 liters, or 8 percent of body mass.
RBCs, WBCs, and platelets are examples of formed elements.
Blood cell formation is discussed in detail in Section 19.2.
Red bone marrow is a connective tissue that is highly vascularized and is found between the trabeculae of spongy tissue.
Adipocytes are formed when stem cells in the red bone marrow divide, proliferate, and differentiate into several types of cells, including blood cells, macrophages, reticular cells, mast cells, and adipocytes.
Pluripotent stem cells in red bone marrow differentiate into two more kinds of stem cells, each of which has the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types.
During hemopoiesis, some myeloid stem cells develop into progenitor cells, while others remain as myeloid stem cells.
Progenitor cells have lost their ability to reproduce and have devoted themselves to the production of more specialized constituents of blood.
It is followed by an abbreviation that signifies the mature components in blood that they will create as a result of their cultivation: Finally, CFU–Eultimately creates erythrocytes (red blood cells); CFU–Meg eventually produces megakaryocytes, which are the source of platelets; and CFU–GM ultimately produces granulocytes (particularly neutrophils) and monocytes (white blood cells) (seeFigure19.3).
Progenitor cells, like stem cells, have a similar look to lymphocytes and cannot be identified only on the basis of their microscopic appearance.